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Glossary Results

C - 178 matching terms

CALIBER
1. A term used to designate the specific cartridge(s) for which a firearm is chambered.
2. Firearms: The approximate diameter of the circle formed by the tops of the lands of a rifled barrel, often expressed in hundreths of an inch (“.38 Caliber”) or millimeters (“7mm Caliber).
3. Ammunition: A numerical term included in a cartridge name to indicate a rough approximation of the bullet diameter.

CAM LOCK
A type of lock found in certain breechloaders, such as the 1873 Springfield. See Action, Trap Door.

CAM LOCKING
An incline, either helical or straight, to assist in closing the action on a chambered cartridge.

CANISTER POWDERS
See Powders, Reloading.

CANNELURE
1. A circumferential groove generally of corrugated appearance cut or impressed into a bullet or cartridge case
2. Sometimes used in reference to an extractor groove.

CANTING
The tipping or tilting of a gun to one side at the time it is fired.

CAP
1. An obsolete term referring to a primer.
2. Percussion Muzzle Loading: See Cap, Percussion.

CAP AND BALL
A muzzleloading firearm using the percussion cap ignition system.

CAP FLASH
The ignition of a primer or percussion cap produces a high temperature flash of hot gases, which is called the Cap Flash. Also called Primer Flash.

CAP, PERCUSSION
A small, generally cylindrical, metallic cup containing a primary explosive, used to ignite the powder charge in muzzle-loading firearms.

CAPPER
A device that contains a quantity of percussion caps and simplifies the placement of the cap upon the nipple on a muzzle-loading firearm.

CARBINE
A rifle of relatively short length and light weight originally designed for mounted troops.

CARRIER
A lifting mechanism in some repeating firearms that raises and positions the cartridge for feeding into the chamber. Sometimes called the Lifter.

CARRYING STRAP
A simplified version of a sling, used for carrying purposes only.

CARTRIDGE
A single round of ammunition consisting of the case, primer and propellant with or without one or more projectiles. Also applies to a shotshell.

CARTRIDGE BLOCK
A flat container having blind holes into which cartridges can be inserted in an upright position to be readily available to the shooter.

CARTRIDGE CASE
The main body of a single round into which other components are inserted to form a cartridge. Usually refers to centerfire and rimfire cartridges. Serves as a gas seal during firing of the cartridge. Usually made of brass, steel, copper, aluminum or plastic Also referred to as a shellcase.

CARTRIDGE CASE LENGTH
The dimensions from face of the head to the mouth.

CARTRIDGE CASE SIZING
See Sizing.

CARTRIDGE CLIP
A separate cartridge container to hold cartridges or shells in proper sequence for feeding into a specific firearm. It is a magazine charger, and unlike a magazine does not contain a feeding spring. Sometimes improperly called a Magazine.

CARTRIDGE COOK-OFF
The firing of a cartridge by extreme overheating in a firearm chamber, without operation of the firing mechanism. Usually associated with machine guns.

CARTRIDGE GUIDE
A firearm component which acts as a guide for the cartridge while it is being fed from the magazine to the chamber.

CARTRIDGE RAMP
Surface in the receiver or barrel of a repeating action firearm along which the cartridge rides in feeding from magazine to chamber.

CARTRIDGE STOP
See Cut Off.

CARTRIDGE, AUXILIARY
See Chamber, Auxiliary.

CARTRIDGE, BALL
See Ammunition, Ball.

CARTRIDGE, BELTED
See Case, Belted.

CARTRIDGE, BIG BORE
For target matches in the United States, cartridges utilizing bullets 0.300” in diameter or larger.

CARTRIDGE, BLANK
A cartridge loaded without a projectile designed to produce a loud noise. Often sealed at the mouth with a cardboard, plastic or fiber wad which is propelled from the muzzle with a dangerous force for a short distance when fired.

CARTRIDGE, BOTTLENECK
A cartridge case having a main body diameter and a distinct angular shoulder stepping down to a smaller diameter at the neck portion of the case.

CARTRIDGE, CENTERFIRE
Any cartridge intended for use in rifles, pistols and revolvers that has its primer central to the axis in the head of the case.

CARTRIDGE, DEFINITIVE PROOF
A cartridge loaded to specific pressures higher than service loads. Used only for testing assembled firearms or elements of firearms which contain the primary firing pressure.

CARTRIDGE, DESIGNATION – METRIC
Most foreign and some American commercial cartridges are identified by their nominal bullet diameter and cartridge case length, both of which are given in millimeters-e.g., 8x57, 7x57, 6.5x54mm.

CARTRIDGE, DUMMY
An inert cartridge which cannot be fired under any circumstances. In America, an inert cartridge for gun functioning is usually black oxidized and may or may not have holes in the side wall of the case. An inert cartridge for display may be natural colored and should have a hole in the primer cup with holes in the side wall of the case optional.

CARTRIDGE, INDUSTRIAL
1. Usually a blank cartridge used in industrial applications such as stud drivers. Usually color coded to indicate power level. Also referred to as power tool cartridges and power actuated tool cartridges.
2. 8 Gauge industrial loads with single projectiles or buckshot used for cleaning continuous cement kilns and other industrial applications.

CARTRIDGE, LUBRICATED
See specific type: Bullet, Inside Lubricated Bullet, Outside Lubricated.

CARTRIDGE, MAGNUM
A term commonly used to describe a rimfire or centerfire cartridge, or shotshell, that is larger, contains more shot or produces higher velocity than standard cartridges or shells of a given caliber or gauge. Rifles, handguns or shotguns that are designed to fire magnum cartridges or shells may also be described with the term, Magnum.

CARTRIDGE, METALLIC
Ammunition having a metallic cartridge case.

CARTRIDGE, NATO
A common designation for military cartridges produced under the specifications of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

CARTRIDGE, NECK OF
The reduced diameter cylindrical portion of a cartridge case, extending from the bottom of the shoulder to the case mouth.

CARTRIDGE, PROVISIONAL PROOF (HISTORICAL)
A cartridge loaded to specified pressures higher than service loads to test barrels during manufacture, but before assembly.

CARTRIDGE, RIMFIRE
A flange-headed cartridge containing the priming mixture inside the rim cavity. Often used to refer to 22 Caliber ammunition, the most common rimfire caliber.

CARTRIDGE, RIMLESS
A centerfire cartridge whose case head is of the same diameter as the body and having a groove turned forward of the head to provide the extraction surface.

CARTRIDGE, RIMMED
A cartridge having a rimmed or flanged head that is larger in diameter than the body of the case. May be either rimfire or centerfire.

CARTRIDGE, SEMI-RIMMED
A centerfire cartridge having a case head only slightly larger in diameter than the case body and an extractor groove just forward of the head.

CARTRIDGE, SERVICE
See Load, Service.

CARTRIDGE, SHOT
A centerfire or rimfire cartridge loaded with small diameter shot.

CARTRIDGE, SMALL BORE
General term applied in the United States to 22 caliber rimfire cartridges. Normally used for target shooting and small game hunting.

CARTRIDGE, WILDCAT
Cartridges designed by individual inventors that have never been commercially manufactured.

CARTRIDGES, POWER DEVICE
Cartridges designed to accomplish mechanical actions. The cartridges consist of a shellcase and propellant that when ignited produces gases for inflation, linear or rotary motion, activate diaphragms, or project fastening devices. See also, Cartridge, Industrial

CASE
Refers to cartridge case or shotshell case. Shortened through common usage to simply “case.”

CASE BELTED
A cartridge case design having an enlarged band ahead of the extractor groove. This type construction is generally used on large capacity magnum-type cartridges.

CASE CAPACITY
The volume available for the propellant in a cartridge case with a fully seated bullet.

CASE EXTRACTOR GROOVE
An annular groove cut in rimless, semi-rimmed cartridge or belted cases, forward of the head, for the purpose of providing a surface that the gun extractor may grip to remove the case from the chamber. Also called Cannelure.

CASE FIRE-FORMING
A procedure used by handloaders to change the external shape of a cartridge case somewhat by firing in a gun having a chamber of the desired configuration. The case to be fireformed must be dimensionally similar to the desired configuration, especially in the case head area.

CASE GAGE
A fixture used to inspect cartridge case dimensions (i.e. length, diameters, thickness, etc.) to insure conformance to established tolerances.

CASE HEAD EXPANSION
An enlargement of the cartridge case head diameter on firing.

CASE HEAD SEPARATION
See Rupture.

CASE LENGTH
See Cartridge Case Length.

CASE LIFE
An expression of the number of times a case can be reloaded and fired.

CASE MOUTH
The opening in the case into which the projectile or shot is inserted.

CASE MOUTH CHAMFERING
A manual operation performed on cartridge cases prior to reloading to ease insertion of projectiles or chambering. Can be internal and/or external.

CASE NECK
See Cartridge, Neck Of.

CASE RIMMED
See Cartridge, Rimmed.

CASE RUPTURE
Also called Case Separation. See Rupture.

CASE SEPARATION
Also called Case Rupture. See Rupture.

CASE SHOULDER
The angled or tapered section of a bottleneck cartridge case connecting the main body of the case to the smaller diameter neck.

CASE SPLIT
A longitudinal rupture in the wall of a cartridge case or shotshell.

CASE STRETCHING
The elongation in the body of a cartridge case during firing.

CASE TAPER
The gradual reduction in diameter of a cartridge case from head to shoulder or mouth.

CASE TRIMMER
A device used to shorten the length of centerfire cartridge cases to proper length. The necks may stretch and lengthen as a result of repeated reloading and firing.

CASE, BOTTLENECK
See Cartridge, Bottleneck.

CASE, LAMINATED
A scaly appearing area indicative of lamination caused by contamination of cartridge case brass.

CASE, REBATED
See Cartridge, Rebated.

CASE, RIMLESS
See Cartridge, Rimless.

CASE, SEMI-RIMMED
See Cartridge, Self-Rimmed.

CASELESS AMMUNITION
Ammunition that has the propellant charge attached to the bullet and not enclosed in any type of cartridge case.

CAST
1. See Cast-Off and Cast-On.
2. See Stock Dimensions.

CAST BULLETS
See Bullet, Cast.

CAST, CHAMBER
See Chamber Cast.

CAST-OFF
The offset of the butt of a gun to the right for a right-handed shooter and to the left for a left-handed shooter. See also Stock Dimensions.

CAST-ON
The offset of the butt of a gun to the right for a right-handed shooter and to the left for a left-handed shooter. See also Stock Dimensions.

CASTING
The act of forming an object, such as a bullet, by pouring molten material into a mold.

CB CAP
A low velocity caliber 22 rimfire cartridge having a conical bullet (“CB”) loaded in a case shorter than the 22 short.

CENTER OF IMPACT
The center of a shot pattern or bullet impacts on a target made by a series of rounds fired at the same aiming point.

CENTER PIN
See Cylinder Pin.

CENTERFIRE CARTRIDGE
See Cartridge, Centerfire.

CHAMBER
1. In a rifle, shotgun or pistol, the rearmost part of the barrel that has been formed to accept a specific cartridge or shell when inserted
2. In a revolver, the holes in the cylinder that have been formed to accept a cartridge

CHAMBER CAST
A low melting point material or alloy casting made of a chamber to determine internal chamber dimensions.

CHAMBER LEADE
The conical part of the bore between the chamber and the rifling. Also called Throat or Ball Seat.

CHAMBER PRESSURE
See Pressure, Chamber.

CHAMBER REAMER
One of a series of cutting tools used to form the chamber area of a barrel bore.

CHAMBER, AUXILIARY
An adapter that, when installed in a gun chamber for which it was designed, permits a smaller cartridge to be fired in the gun.

CHAMBER, BULGE
A chamber with an abnormal enlargement.

CHAMBER, FLOATING
A system in which a rearwardly movable chamber operates the mechanism of a firearm when fired.

CHAMBER, FLUTED
A chamber that has longitudinal grooves.

CHARGE
1. The amount, by weight, of a component of a cartridge (i.e., priming weight, propellant weight, shot weight.)
2. To load a firearm.

CHARGE, MAXIMUM
The greatest charge weight, in grains, of a particular propellant that may be used with other specified ammunition components without exceeding the safe, maximum, allowable pressure limit for the specific cartridge or shell being loaded.

CHARGE, NOMINAL
A typical charge weight of a specific powder for a specific combination of components.

CHARGE, POWDER
The amount of powder by weight in a cartridge case.

CHARGE, REDUCED
A less than nominal powder charge.

CHARGER
See Cartridge Clip.

CHECKERING
A diamond-like pattern in the wood, plastic or metal components of a firearm for improving grip or ornamentation.

CHECKERING CRADLE
A frame having vertical end supports between which a gun stock may be held while its gripping surfaces are being checkered.

CHECKERING LINE COUNT
A method of expressing the size of the diamonds in a checkering pattern, expressed in lines per inch The higher the number, the finer the pattern; the lower the number, the coarser.

CHECKERING TOOLS
The tools used for cutting a checkering pattern in wooden stocks. May be hand or machine powered.

CHECKERING, CUT
Checkering which is cut with a tool into the surface, either by hand or machine, rather than impressed.

CHECKERING, FRENCH
A type of gunstock line engraving where lines are omitted at regular intervals. Also called Skip-a-line.

CHECKERING, HAND
A process of wood carving gun stocks by hand rather than machine.

CHECKERING, IMPRESSED
A heated die process which produces a carved effect in the gun stock or forearm.

CHECKERING, MACHINE
A process of wood carving gun stocks by machine rather than by hand.

CHECKERING, RUNOVER
A wood cutting condition which occurs when any line goes beyond the border.

CHECKERING, SKIP-LINE
See Checkering, French.

CHEEK, CHEEKPIECE
A raised part of the side of the stock of a shoulder-arm against which the shooter rests his face. Usually associated with a Monte Carlo type stock.

CHERRY
A tool used to cut the precise bullet configuration into the two halves of a bullet mold.

CHILLED SHOT
See Shot, Chilled.

CHOKE
An interior constriction at or near the muzzle end of a shotgun barrel for the purpose of controlling shot dispersion.

CHOKE MARGIN
That portion of the choke forward of the greatest constriction.

CHOKE MARKINGS, EUROPEAN
Full Choke = * Improved-Modified = ** Modified = *** Improved Cylinder = **** Cylinder = CL

CHOKE MARKINGS, UNITED STATES
Full Choke = FC Full (Greatest constriction.) Improved-Modified = Imp. Mod. (Less constriction than full.) Modified = Mod. (Less constriction than improved-modified.) Improved-Cylinder = IC, Imp. Cyl. (Less constriction than modified.) Skeet = Skeet, Sk (Less constriction than improved cylinder.) Cylinder Bore = Cyl. (Least constriction or no constriction.) Some firearms’ manufacturers in the United States also use the European system.

CHOKE TUBE
A replaceable insert in the muzzle of a shotgun barrel to provide the desired amount of choke.

CHOKE, CUT
A choke formed by a reamer during manufacture of the barrel of a shotgun.

CHOKE, CYLINDER BORE
The lack of a uniform constriction at or near the muzzle of a shotgun barrel.

CHOKE, JUG
A type of shotgun barrel choke, wherein a slight recess is formed in the bore approximately one inch behind the muzzle. The recess causes the shot to gather before leaving the muzzle resulting in a denser pattern.

CHOKE, SWAGED
A shotgun barrel constriction which has been formed at or near the muzzle by the use of dies or hammers.

CHOKE, VARIABLE
An adjustable device attached to the muzzle of a shotgun in order to control the shot patterns.

CHOKE, VENTILATED
A shotgun choke which is slotted for the release of powder gases.

CHRONOGRAPH
An instrument designed to measure elapsed time. When correlated with distance it is used to determine projectile velocity.

CLAY TARGET
See Target, Clay.

CLIP, CARTRIDGE
See Cartridge Clip.

COATED SHOT
See Shot, Coated.

COCK
To place the hammer, firing-pin or striker in position for firing.

COCKING INDICATOR
Any device to indicate that a firearm hammer or striker is cocked.

COCKING LEVER
See Lever, Cocking.

COCKING ON OPENING
(OR ON AN UPWARD STROKE) In relation to bolt action firearms, when the striker is cocked by lifting the bolt handle. “Cock on Closing” is when the striker is cocked by closing the bolt.

COCKING PIECE
1. In certain firearms, the end of a long firing-pin or striker by which the firearm may be manually cocked.
2. An internal portion of the cocking mechanism, which holds the firing pin or striker in it’s cocked position against the sear.

COCKING ROD
A mechanical means of cocking the hammer of some firearms.

COCKING STUD
Small lug in the cocking mechanism of a firearm.

COEFFICIENT OF FORM
A numerical term indicating the general profile of a projectile.

COMB
In a shoulder arm, the ridge at the upper forward part of the butt stock just in back of the grip section.

COMBINATION GUN
See Gun, Combination.

COMBUSTION
The chemical reaction of a fuel and oxygen, usually initiated by a heat source. When the fuel is oxidized there is an evolution of heat and often light.

COMPENSATOR
A device attached to the muzzle end of the barrel that utilizes propelling gases to reduce recoil. Also, see Muzzle Brake.

CONE, FORCING
1. The tapered lead from the shotgun chamber diameter to the bore diameter
2. The tapered lead from the bore diameter to the choke diameter.
3. The tapered entrance to the bore in the rear of a revolver barrel.

CONFORMAL GAGE
See Gage, Conformal.

COOK-OFF
See Cartridge Cook-Off.

COPPER CLAD STEEL
A composite structure of copper and steel used for the manufacture of certain bullet jackets.

COPPER JACKETED BULLET
See Bullet, Copper Jacket.

CORE
See Bullet Core.

CRANE
The part of a solid frame revolver on which the cylinder is swung out to accomplish loading and ejecting. Also called Yoke.

CREEP
See Trigger Creep.

CRIMP, ROLLED
The closure of the mouth of a shotshell by inverting the mouth of the tube over a top wad or slug.

CRIMP, STAR
A type of closure of the mouth of a metallic case or shotshell in which the sidewalls are folded in a star-shaped pattern. Also called Rose Crimp or Pie Crimp.

CROSSBOLT
1. A transverse operating type of lock used in some break-open type firearms (sometimes called a “Greener Crossbolt”). A device intended to prevent stock splitting due to recoil. A form of manual safety which operates transversely to prevent or permit firing of a gun.

CROTCH FIGURE
The generally irregular grain pattern common to a stock blank cut from the crotch of a tree.

CROWN
The radius on the muzzle end of a barrel.

CROWNING
The act of forming the radius on the muzzle end of a barrel.

CRUSHER
A metallic cylinder which, when used in conjunction with a piston and associated equipment, can be used to measure cartridge pressures. Deformation is correlated with peak pressure.

CUP (COPPER UNIT OF PRESSURE)
A pressure value determined by means of copper crusher cylinders using SAAMI recommended procedures and equipment.

CUP SPLIT
A longitudinal split in the sidewall of the brass or steel cup assembled on a plastic or paper shotshell.

CUP, HIGH
Correct term for shotshells having a high metal head type of construction.

CUP, LOW
Correct term for shotshells having a low metal head type of construction.

CUP, SHOT
See Wad, Shot-Protector.

CUT OFF
1. A mechanical device that is employed in firearms so that only one shell will feed into the carrier (or Lifter) with each cycle of the breech mechanism. Also called Cartridge Stop and Shell Stop.
2. A manually operated device to prevent the feeding of cartridges from a magazine.
3. See Rupture.

CUT RIFLING
See Rifling, Cut.

CYCLIC RATE
The rate which a succession of movements repeats itself; in an automatic firearm, it is usually expressed in shots per minute that are theoretically possible to be fired, given an unlimited supply of ammunition.

CYLINDER
The rotatable part of a revolver that contains the cartridge chambers.

CYLINDER ALIGNMENT
The relationship of the axis of the chamber in a revolver cylinder to the axis of the bore.

CYLINDER BORE CHOKE
See Choke, Cylinder Bore.

CYLINDER END-PLAY
The free longitudinal movement of the cylinder in the frame.

CYLINDER GAP
In a revolver, the space between the cylinder and the barrel measured with the cylinder in the rearmost position. Also called Cylinder-Barrel Gap or Barrel-Cylinder Gap.

CYLINDER INDEXING
See Cylinder Alignment.

CYLINDER PIN
The pin around which the cylinder of a revolver rotates. This is a feature found on revolvers in which there is no crane. Also called Axis Pin, Base Pin, Center Pin.

CYLINDER RELEASE LATCH
A device which permits the swinging out of the cylinder from the frame of a revolver.

CYLINDER STOP
A device to stop cylinder rotation in proper alignment with the barrel in a revolver. Sometimes called a Cylinder Latch or Cylinder Bolt.

CYLINDER STOP NOTCH
One of the machined grooves on the circumference of a revolver cylinder that is engaged by the cylinder stop in order to assure barrel and chamber alignment. Also called Bolt Notch. Sometime called a Cylinder Latch or Cylinder Bolt.

CYLINDER TIMING
See Cylinder Alignment.

CYLINDER-BARREL GAP
See Cylinder Gap.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Abbreviations:

A-L | M-Z