Chart of Unsafe Firearms and Ammunition Combinations
B - 243 matching terms
A shotgun, chambered for a specified gauge, whose barrel bore diameter is greater than the nominal specified for that gauge, but does not exceed SAAMI maximum.
See Strap, Back.
A structure intended to safely stop a fired bullet or other projectile(s).
The force exerted on the breech block by the head of the cartridge case during propellant burning.
Another name for Overbore.
See Ammunition, Ball.
A pointed, spiral piece of metal secured at the end of a ramrod and used to remove a lead ball or patch from a muzzle loading gun.
1. For modern cased ammunition, the term patched ball refers to a full metal jacketed bullet (FMJ). 2. For muzzleloading, the term refers to round or conical lead projectiles that utilize cloth or other material which acts as a gas seal or a guide for the projectile. 3. Early fixed ammunition using paper as a gas seal for the projectile.
See Shot, Balled.
An index of the manner in which a particular projectile decelerates in free flight expressed mathematically as: c = w/id2 where: c = ballistic coefficient, w = mass, in pounds, i = coefficient of form (a.k.a. form factor), d = bullet diameter, in inches. Represents the bullet’s ability to overcome the air resistance in flight.
A descriptive and performance data sheet on ammunition. Information usually includes: bullet weight and type; muzzle velocity and energy; velocity; energy and trajectory data at various ranges.
The science of projectiles in motion. Usually divided into three parts: 1.) Interior Ballistics, which studies the projectiles movement inside the gun; 2.) Exterior Ballistics, which studies the projectiles movement between the muzzle and the target; and 3.) Terminal Ballistics, which studies the projectiles movement in the target.
The branch of Applied Mechanics which relates to the motion of a projectile from the muzzle of a firearm to the target.
The science of ballistics dealing with all aspects of the combustion phenomena occurring within the gun barrel, including pressure development and motion of the projectile along the bore of the firearm.
That branch of ballistics which deals with the effects of projectiles at the target.
See Bearing Surface.
See Sight, Bar.
That part of a firearm through which a projectile or shot charge travels under the impetus of powder gases, compressed air, or other like means. May be rifled or smooth bore.
The position, in relationship to each other, in which multiple barrel systems are found in forearms. (e.g. over and under, side-by-side, etc.)
A barrel of a firearm, either fixed or interchangeable, that has been fitted with necessary parts so that it may be assembled to the remainder of the firearm.
A strip or strips of metal that encircle and hold the barrel and stock, fore-end, magazine or other accessories together.
An unfinished barrel in any state of completion.
See Rifling, Broach.
A groove in a rifle stock or fore-end where the barrel fits in the assembled position.
Degradation of bore and chamber surface condition due to chemical action.
The outside dimension of a barrel at any given point.
The wearing or physical deterioration of the bore or chamber of a firearm caused by hot powder gases or projectile passage.
A metal projection which extends rearward from the breech end of a barrel into which the breech locks while the firearm is in battery or firing position.
A ring shaped attachment or, the barrel of many shotguns which encircles the magazine tube. Sometimes called Magazine Tube Bracket.
See Subcaliber Tube.
A tube that surrounds the barrel.
See Barrel, Damascus.
On shoulder arms and most handguns the distance between the muzzle of the barrel and the face of the breech block or bolt. On revolvers, it is the overall length of the barrel only, including the portion within the frame.
1. The total number of rounds that have been fired in a barrel. 2. The total number of rounds fired in a barrel before it becomes unserviceable.
See Barrel Relining.
See Lug, Barrel.
Also called bore obstruction. A foreign object or material in the bore of a barrel which prevents unhindered passage of projectile(s) when fired.
The pressure in a barrel developed by propelling gases when a cartridge is fired.
Also called bore reflector. A device with a mirror for examining the bore and chamber of a barrel.
The replacement of the interior surface of a bore by inserting and fastening a tube. Usually refers to rifled barrels.
The breech end of the barrel that fits into the action or receiver.
See Barrel Relining. This term usually refers to shotgun barrels.
An abrupt change in external barrel contour.
BARREL STRIKING (DRAWFILING)
The longitudinal hand filing of a barrel on its exterior surface to produce a smooth finish.
The process of forming the interior and/or exterior shape of the barrel of a firearm by pneumatic or hydraulic hammers. Also called Hammered Barrel; Hammered Rifling, Hammer Forged.
The screw threads found on the shank of the barrel, used to screw the barrel into the frame or receiver of the firearm.
BARREL TIME (IGNITION BARREL TIME)
The elapsed time from the contact of a firing-pin with a cartridge primer to the emergence of the projectile(s) from the muzzle of the firearm.
An opening or series of openings or ports in a barrel, normally near the muzzle, through which gases pass prior to bullet exit. See Muzzle-Brake.
The oscillations of a barrel as a result of firing.
The gradual mechanical deterioration caused by use, i.e. firing, cleaning, etc. Also, see Barrel Erosion.
A separate weight attached to a regular barrel to change balance.
The movement of the muzzle end of a barrel that occurs as the projectile leaves.
A barrel with an abnormal enlargement in its bore. See Barrel, Ringed.
A barrel formed by twisting or braiding together steel and iron wires or bars. The resulting cable is then wound around a mandrel and forged into a barrel tube. Sometimes called a Laminated Barrel.
A barrel with longitudinal grooves cut into the outside surface for all or some portion of the overall length.
BARREL, HAMMERED (HAMMER FORGED)
See Barrel, Swaging.
Barrels which may be installed on a particular action without factory fitting.
The term Mann Barrel refers to a heavy- walled test barrel that is fitted with rings which are concentric with the bore. Such Barrels may be fitted with one of various kinds of actions and are used for accuracy testing.
A heavy-walled barrel fitted with instrumentation to measure pressure.
A barrel that has been fired while containing an obstruction. The resultant excessive radial pressure causes a circumferential bulge in the barrel. See also Barrel, Bulged.
A barrel of special dimensions used for testing ammunition.
A gun barrel which changes its center-of-impact point when heated by firing.
The opening or clearance between barrel and cylinder in a revolver. See also Cylinder Gap.
See Action, Barreled.
See Cylinder Pin.
The term commonly applied to a shotshell with a high metal cup, but properly applies to the height of the internal base wad. Often misused as synonymous with high brass or high cup.
A term commonly applied to a shotshell with a low metal cup, but properly applies to the height of the internal base wad. Often misused as synonymous with low brass or low cup.
See Cup, Split.
The condition where the breech of the action is in proper position for firing.
A component of a shotshell primer; a flanged metallic cup that contains and supports the primer cup and anvil.
The designation of spherical shot having a diameter of .180” used in shotshell loads. The term BB is also used to designate steel or lead air rifle shot of .175” diameter. Although the two definitions cause some confusion, they have coexisted for many years.
The abbreviation for Bulleted Breech Cap. The original design in 1845 was a percussion cap without a well defined head loaded with a 22 caliber ball. A rimfire cartridge designed for use in Flobert rifles for indoor use. Several variations followed.
See Sight, Bead.
That portion of a bullet’s outer surface that comes into direct contact with the interior surface of the barrel bore when moving through the barrel.
1. See Forearm, Beavertail.2. See Fore-end, Beavertail.
Refers to the fit or fitting of the metal parts of the barrel and receiver with the wood stock.
1. An adjustable device, which is installed in the fore-end of a rifle stock to provide pressure on a barrel 2. The pressure provided by the wood-to-metal fit.
A form of Bedding Control using machine screw(s) to produce a pressure on the underside of the barrel.
See Case, Belted.
A table specifically designed to eliminate as much human error as possible by supporting a rifle for competitive shooting or for sighting-in purposes.
A notch, usually in the hammer, in which the sear or trigger is held under tension of the mainspring until released by movement of the trigger or hammer. See Half Cock; Full Cock.
See Primer, Berdan.
In America, any firearm using a centerfire cartridge with a bullet .30” or larger in diameter. 2. In shotguns, another name for overbore.
BIG BORE CARTRIDGE
See Cartridge, Big Bore.
BILLIARD BALL EFFECT
The divergence of shot pellets caused by collisions of pellets in the shot string as it comes into contact with the target.
See Shot, Bird.
BIRD’S HEAD GRIP
See Grip, Bird’s Head.
See Powder, Black.
See Sight, Blade.
1. A cartridge without a projectile designed to make noise.2. See Barrel Blank. 3.See Stock Blank.
See Cartridge, Blank.
BLIND BOX MAGAZINE
See Magazine, Blind Box.
1. See Breech Block.2. See Breech Bolt.
A device containing a number of blind holes into which cases or completed ammunition are placed.
The component in a firearm designed so that, when the action is closed, a block or blocks slide into place securing the bolt in the locked position.
Insufficient firing-pin energy or protrusion. The result is erratic ignition or failure to ignite the primer.
A slang term for Blowback.
See Action, Blow-forward.
1. See Action, Blowback.2. In ammunition, a leakage of gas rearward between the case and chamber wall from the mouth of the case.
See Pattern, Blown.
See Primer, Blown.
Tanks used to contain the solutions used for blueing of firearms.
The chemical oxidation to color ferrous metal parts various shades of blue or black.
See Bullet, Boattail.
1. The portion of the cartridge case which contains the propellant.2. Shotshell - the tubular section that contains the propellant, wads and shot charge (if present).
See Recoil Plate.
1. See Breech Bolt.2. See Cylinder Stop.3. See Latch.
See Action, Bolt.
See Breech Face.
Grooves or ridges on either bolt or receiver intended to maintain alignment or prevent over-rotation.
A protrusion from the bolt, usually at right angles from the axis of the bolt, which is used to manually actuate the mechanism.
BOLT HANDLE BENDING JIG
A mechanism of two or more pieces which is used in the alteration of bolt handles.
BOLT HANDLE, BUTTERKNIFE
A flat, low profile, paddle-shaped bolt handle found on some rifles.
The forward end of the bolt containing the bolt face.
BOLT LOCKING LUG(S)
The protrusion or protrusions from the surface of the bolt body which lock into mating recesses in the receiver, barrel or barrel extension to resist rearward thrust of the chamber pressure.
See Bolt Locking Lug(s).
See Bolt Sleeve.
Longitudinal grooves in which the bolt locking lugs travel.
A device which allows the bolt to be removed from the firearm.
A component at the rear end of the bolt which guides the firing-pin and supports the firing-pin spring in bolt action rifles. Also called bolt plug.
A device which is intended to retain the bolt in the firearm during normal operation.
The distance the bolt travels from “fully open” to “fully closed” position.
A bolt with a counterbore in the forward end to accommodate the head of the cartridge case.
1. A protective device used on the buttstock of a firearm during test firing 2.A type of recoil pad.
The interior of a barrel forward of the chamber.
A line through the center of the bore.
A brush used to clean the interior surface of the barrel of a firearm.
The pouring of a special alloy or material that has a low melting point and exceptional dimensional stability into the bore or chamber of a firearm. The cast is used to study physical characteristics of the bore.
A reduction in the internal diameter of a firearm bore.
1. Rifled barrels: the minor interior diameter of a barrel which is the diameter of a circle formed by the tops of the lands.2. Shotguns or muskets, the interior dimension of the barrel forward of the chamber but before any restrictive choke or expanded muzzle.
A method of aligning a barrel on a target by aiming through the bore. May be part of the sight alignment procedure.
See Slugging (Bore).
An illuminated, optical device for examining the interior of the bore of a firearm.
See Cartridge, Bottleneck.
See Primer, Boxer.
BRACKET, MAGAZINE TUBE
See Barrel Guide.
Common terminology referring to the length of the external metal cup on a shotshell. Properly called high cup.
Common terminology referring to the length of the external metal cup on a shotshell. Properly called low cup.
The rear end of the barrel.
A mechanism which does not operate in line with the axis of the bore, and which is intended to support, properly, the head of the cartridge.
BREECH BLOCK FACE
See Breech Face.
The locking and cartridge head supporting mechanism of a firearm that operates in line with the axis of the bore.
BREECH BOLT FACE
See Breech Face.
BREECH BORE SIGHT
A fixture having a small centrally located aperture that fits into a firearm chamber. Used in conjunction with a similar device that fits into the muzzle to establish the axis of the bore.
That part of the breech block which is against the head of the cartridge case or shotshell during feeding and firing. Sometimes called Breech Block Face.
In percussion or flintlock firearms, the metal part that is threaded into the breech end of the barrel.
See Pressure, Chamber.
That part of the frame of a revolver or break-open firearm which supports the head of the cartridge when it is fired.
See Headspace Gage.
A misnomer. Commonly confused with headspace.
1. BELT: A type of chamber design in which the cartridge seats in the chamber on an enlarged band ahead of the extractor groove of the cartridge body.2. MOUTH: A type of chamber design in which the cartridge seats in the chamber on the mouth of the cartridge case.3. RIMLESS: A type of chamber design in which the cartridge seats in the chamber on the shoulder of the cartridge case.4. RIMMED: A type of chamber design in which the cartridge seats in the chamber on the rim or flange of the cartridge case.
See Slug, Brenneke.
A component of a firearm action which usually straddles other parts and acts as a guide or support.
A term describing the shattering power of high explosives.
The process of forming spiral rifling grooves in the barrel of a firearm by a tool having a series of cutting edges each slightly larger than the preceding.
A chemical oxidation process to color metallic parts of a firearm a brownish black shade.
See Load, Brush.
Lead pellets ranging in size from .20” to .36” diameter normally loaded in shotshells.
In a firearm, any part intended to absorb shock, reduce impact or check recoil.
See Barrel, Bulged.
A slang term for Bullseye of Target. See Bullseye.
See Gun, Bull.
A rifle, in which the rear of the barreled action is slightly in front of the buttplate.
A rifle, usually bolt action, in which the rear or barreled action is slightly in front of the buttplate.
A non-spherical projectile for use in a rifled barrel and sometimes contained within a sabot.
A process for making lead bullets by pouring molten metal into a mold.
BULLET CREEP OR POPPING
The movement of a bullet out of the cartridge case due to the recoil of the firearm (and the inertia of the bullet) when firing another cartridge in the firearm. Also called Bullet Starting.
The maximum dimension across the largest cylindrical section of a bullet.
See Drop, Bullet.
1. The grooves cut into a bullet by barrel rifling.2. The forming of grooves in a bullet by the barrel rifling.
A metallic cover over the core of the bullet.
The distance that a bullet must travel from its position at rest in the cartridge case to its initial engagement of the rifling.
The tool used to lubricate bullets.
Metal forming the entire bullet or bullet core. Usually an alloy of lead, antimony and/or tin.
A split block of metal having one or more cavities into which molten lead is poured to form a bullet.
That distance which a bullet travels into the target material.
The force required to extract a bullet from the case into which it was loaded.
1. An instrument that measures the force required to extract a bullet from live ammunition.2. A tool used to remove bullets from live ammunition.
BULLET PULLER, INERTIA
A tool using impact to remove a bullet from a cartridge case.
BULLET SLIPPAGE OR STRIPPING
Slippage or stripping occurs if the bullet fails to engage the rifling properly.
BULLET SPIN OR ROTATION
The rotational motion imparted to the bullet by the rifling in the barrel.
A mechanical device used to detect the amount of eccentricity in a bullet between its rotational axis and the outer surface of the bullet.
The spatter and fragmentation of a bullet upon impacting a hard surface.
The act of steadying a bullet in flight by use of the proper rifling twist and bullet velocity.
The instability of a bullet in flight. Sometimes referred to as keyholing.
A device to safely stop a bullet in flight. Usually found in indoor ranges behind the target area.
In Interior Ballistics: The change of bullet form due to chamber pressure. In Exterior Ballistics: The expansion of a bullet upon impact with target.
A specific design of bullet having a tapered or truncated conical base.
Consists of a standard lead type bullet having a harder metal jacket (gilding metal, copper, etc.) over the nose.
A bullet formed by pouring molten lead alloy into a mold.
Lead bullet, having a thin coating of another material such as brass, copper, nylon, etc.
BULLET, COPPER JACKETED
A bullet having an outer jacket of copper or copper alloy, and containing a lead alloy core.
The inner section of a jacketed bullet, usually lead.
See Bullet, Frangible.
An obsolete term referring to an expanding bullet manufactured at the British Arsenal in Dumdum, India around 1900.
A hunting bullet design that provides for controlled expansion upon impact.
A bullet containing an explosive in the nose, intended to explode on impact.
A bullet with flattened front end at right angles to the axis.
A projectile designed to readily break up upon impact on a hard surface in order to minimize ricochet or spatter.
BULLET, FULL METAL CASE
See Bullet, Full Metal Jacket.
BULLET, FULL METAL JACKET
A projectile in which the bullet jacket encloses most of the core with the exception of the base. Also called Full-Jacketed, Full Patch, Full Metal Case.
See Bullet, Frangible.
BULLET, GAS CHECK
A lead alloy bullet with a copper or gilding metal cup pressed over the heel.
BULLET, HOLLOW BASE
A bullet with a deep heel cavity.
BULLET, HOLLOW POINT
A bullet with a cavity in the nose to facilitate expansion.
BULLET, INSIDE LUBRICATED
A bullet having lubrication in grooves on the bearing surface of the projectile. When seated, these grooves are covered by the cartridge case.
A bullet formed by a lead alloy.
BULLET, METAL CASED
See Bullet, Full Metal Jacket.
A bullet that has expanded upon impact into a mushroom-like shape.
BULLET, NATIONAL MATCH
A bullet manufactured specifically for ammunition issued to competitors at the National Matches.
The curved forward part of a bullet.
BULLET, OPEN POINT EXPANDING
See Bullet, Hollow Point.
BULLET, OUTSIDE LUBRICATED
A lead bullet lubricated on the surface not covered by the cartridge case.
A bullet designed for controlled expansion having a jacket which is divided into two cavities which enclose the forward and rear cores of the bullet. It is designed so the first cavity expands and the rear cavity holds together for penetration.
The entire bullet, or just the jacket, electrolitically plated with a different material.
1. A device used in scoring bullet holes in a paper target.2. A pin inserted in a bullet mold to form a cavity in the nose or base of a bullet.
BULLET, ROUND NOSE
An elongated projectile with a radiused nose.
A bullet with a partial jacket exposing a lead nose.
BULLET, SEMI-JACKETED HOLLOW POINT
A projectile having a jacket exposing a lead nose with a cavity.
BULLET, SEMI-WAD CUTTER
A projectile with a distinct shoulder and short truncated cone at the forward end.
BULLET, SOFT POINT
A design providing for exposure of a portion of the core at the nose of a jacketed bullet.
A bullet which has lost all of its kinetic energy.
BULLET, SPIRE POINT
A bullet with a near conical ogive.
A bullet design having a sharp pointed, long ogive, usually of seven calibers (i.e. length to diameter ratio of 7 to 1.)or more
BULLET, STEEL JACKETED
Plated or clad steel is sometimes used as a substitute for gilding metal or copper in bullet jacket material.
A bullet that has been completely formed by impacting the bullet material into a die.
BULLET, TOTAL METAL JACKET
Bullet made by copper plating a lead slug to create a jacket that completely encases the core. This jacket is thicker than cosmetic copper plating
A design of a flat-nosed bullet having a conical shape rather than a nose formed by a radius.
BULLET, TRUNCATED CONE
A design of a flat-nosed bullet having a conical shape rather than ogive formed by a curve or radius.
A generally cylindrical bullet design having a sharp shouldered nose intended to cut target paper cleanly to facilitate easy and accurate scoring.
A bullet made from paraffin and other wax preparation, usually for short range indoor target shooting.
A characteristic caused by the eccentricity or imbalance of the bullet to the axis of the bore. See Yaw.
The force required to shorten a cartridge by pushing on the bullet.
In target shooting, the aiming point.
1. Handguns: Bottom part of the grip.2. Long Guns: Rear or shoulder end of the stock.
A metal, rubber or composition covering to reinforce and protect the shoulder end of a firearm stock.
The rear or butt end of the firearm which is normally placed against the shooter’s shoulder.
Grip of a revolver with a rounded shape.
BUTTERKNIFE BOLT HANDLE
See Bolt Handle, Butterknife.
See Rifling, Button.
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